Godbout – Racicot / LeBeuf – LaHaye


Male Abt 1630 - 1698  (~ 68 years)

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  • Name Madokawando   [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
    Born Abt 1630  Territoire de la Confédération abénaquise (Acadie) Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Occupation 27 Feb 1676 
    Sa soeur est capturée à Penobscot par l'expédition de Richard Waldron avec 2 vaisseaux et 60 hommes (le chef Mattahande fut tué) 
    Military 6 Nov 1676 
    Négociations avec les Anglais à Boston entamées par Mog (Mugg) qui représentait les chefs Madokawando et Cheberrina 
    Military 6 Nov 1676 
    Traité de paix conclu avec le gouverneur John Leverett (et le conseil) sans la participation des Ammoscoggins et Pequakets (fin de King Philip's War) 
    Occupation 1689 
    Avise les Anglais à Boston que St-Castin était extrêmement insulté par le pillage de sa demeure et qu'une grande guerre serait à craindre 
    Military 8 Jul 1689 
    Dover (NH) est attaqué par ses guerriers avec l'expédition de Kankamagus, "Cochecho Massacre" (28 juin 1689, v.s.) 
    Military 8 Jul 1689 
    Les habitations fortifiées Waldron et Otis sont brûlées, 23 sont tués et 29 emmenés en captivité au Canada (y compris femmes et enfants) 
    Military 26 May 1690 
    Expédition avec Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin et René Robineau de Portneuf contre Fort Loyal à Casco Bay (Falmouth, ME) 
    Military 30 May 1690 
    Le fort est détruit et toutes les maisons sont brûlées sur deux lieues à la ronde 
    Military 3 Feb 1692 
    Attaque York (ME) avec l'abbé Louis-Pierre Thury, le Père Vincent Bigot et Taxous (Moxus) "Candlemas Massacre" (24 janvier 1692, v.s.) 
    Military 3 Feb 1692 
    Brûle tout sur une distance d'une lieue ½ à la ronde, 103 sont tués et 84 emmenés en captivité (y compris femmes et enfants) 
    Military 11 Jun 1692 
    Attaque Wells au Maine avec Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, René Robineau de Portneuf, Edgeremet, Taxous (Moxus) et 350 guerriers 
    Military 11 Jun 1692 
    Le capitaine James Converse défend Wells vigoureusement avec ses 29 courageux soldats et ce raid s'avère un échec 
    Military 11 Aug 1693 
    Signe un traité de paix avec Sir William Phips à Pemaquid 
    Military 27 Jul 1694 
    Attaque Oyster River (NH) avec Bomazeen, Taxous (Moxus) et Sébastien de Villieu (17 juillet 1694, v.s.) 
    Military 27 Jul 1694 
    Brûle 60 habitations, 104 sont tués et 27 emmenés en captivité (y compris femmes et enfants) 
    Military 6 Aug 1694 
    Attaque Groton (Massachusetts) avec Taxous (Moxus) accompagné de son neveu qui fut tué (22 morts et 13 prisonniers) 
    Military 8 Sep 1694 
    Lettre de l'abbé Thury à Joseph Robineau de Villebon l'avisant que Taxous et Madokawando avaient pris ou tué 42 personnes près de Boston 
    Occupation Chef Penobscot (Tarratine) de la Confédération abénaquise à Pentagouët 
    Occupation Fils adoptif et successeur d'Assaminasqua 
    Occupation Principal Sachem entre la rivière Saint-Jean et la rivière Kennebec 
    Occupation 10 May 1695 
    Informe Joseph Robineau de Villebon qu'il désire s'installer sur la rivière Saint-Jean pour démontrer la sincérité de son allégeance 
    Occupation 3 Nov 1695 
    Rencontre Joseph Robineau de Villebon sur la rivière Saint-Jean avec Chebackouides et 30 Indiens de Médoctec (Meductic) 
    Died 1698  Territoire de la Confédération abénaquise (Acadie) Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I5995  Godbout
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2017 

     1. Marie Mathilde Pidiwamiskoa,   b. Abt 1650, Territoire de la Confédération abénaquise (Acadie) Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Acadie Find all individuals with events at this location
     2. Marie Melchilde Misoukdkosié,   b. Abt 1652, Territoire de la Confédération abénaquise (Acadie) Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Between 1720-1721, Acadie Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 69 years)
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2017 
    Family ID F3080  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Sources 
    1. [S94] Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes, Stephen A. White, (Centre d'études acadiennes, Université de Moncton, 1999), 6.

    2. [S93] Série d'articles, Père Clarence-J. d'Entremont, (Yarmouth Vanguard, Yarmouth, Nouvelle-Écosse, 3 janvier 1989 - 27 novembre 1990), 14 février 1989.

    3. [S196] NEHGR: New England Historical and Genealogical Register, (New England Historical and Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts), Volume 5 (1851), pp. 180-181, 183-184 & Vol. 42 (1888), pp. 291, 294-295.
      26 February 1676: Major Richard Waldron with sixty men in two vessels sailed for Penobscot River. As soon as the English got on shore on the 27th they pursued the Indians to their canoes so closely that they were able to kill seven before they reached their boats, and as many more probably afterwards. Four were taken prisoners, of whom one was the sister of Madockawando. The old chief Mattahande was among the killed. Vol. 42 (1888), pp. 291-298: Cochecho Massacre. Vol. 3 (1849), p. 384 & Vol. 9 (1855), p. 315: John Dean who was killed at Oyster River on 17 July 1694 (o.s.) had married Sarah Edson at Taunton on 7 November 1663. (Plymouth Colony Records).

    4. [S96] The History of the State of Maine; from its first discovery, A. D. 1602, to the separation, A. D. 1820, William D. Williamson, (Glazier, Masters & Smith, Hallowell, 1832), Volume 1, pp. 472, 515-517, 542-547, 594, 606, 610-613, 619-622, 626-640.
      The first open hostilities between the eastern inhabitants and the natives, were commenced in the celebrated king Philip's war. It broke out in the colony of Plymouth, June 24, 1675; and within twenty days, the fire began to kindle in these easterly parts. The character and conduct of the (Maine/Acadia region) Sagamores in this emergency, reflect considerable light upon the war itself: Wonnolancet (Penacooks), Blind Will (Newichawannock tribe), Squando (Sokokis), Tarumkin (Anasagunticooks), Robinhood (Canibas), his son Hopehood and celebrated chief of his time Madockawando, the adopted son of the great prince and orator, Assiminasqua, and present Sagamore of the Tarratines. He was a man of great sagacity, 'grave and serious in his speech and carriage,' and like Squando, pretended to have supernatural visions and revelations. Unmolested by the English, in the enjoyment of his possessions, he could perceive no inducements to join in the war. His principal minister was Mugg, who by living in English families, had become acquainted with their language and habits, and qualified to negotiate with the colonial authorities. 1688: Netombomet, the successor of Squando, complained that the English interrupted the fishery belonging to his tribe in the Saco river; and he and Robin Doney, a Sachem of the same tribe, were determined to avenge their injuries. The Anasagunticook Sagamore, Warumbe, who had succeeded Tarumkin, being encountered in his objections to encroachments, by his own grant to Wharton, in 1684, was ready to exclaim boldly and loudly against the new neighboring settlement at North-Yarmouth; for by the treaty of 1678, it was pretended, the English were only to enjoy their former possessions, not enlarge them. Hopehood, still living, Moxus and Bomaseen, Sagamores of the Canibas tribe, and Toxus, a Sachem or chief among the Indians about Norridgewock, were cherishing strong suspicions, that in the conveyances of lands upon Kennebeck river by Monquine, Robinhood, Abagadusset and others, there was much deception practiced. The Wawenocks became identified with the Canibas tribe; and Jack Pudding or Sheepscot John, is the only Sagamore of theirs, mentioned at this period. The celebrated Madockawando was at first an advocate for peace, engaging to negotiate a treaty, in which 'Egeremet of Machias,' and the three Etechemin tribes, would in all likelihood have joined; had not the movement been prevented by Baron de Castine. 1689: Madokawando, from Penobscot, accompanied by several Indians and an interpreter, visited Boston. They stated that Castine was highly affronted with the English for plundering his house (1688); and that a great war was apprehended. To Castine, a very respectful address was prepared by the government and sent by Capt. Alden, the master, exculpating the present administration from all censure on account of the ill-treatment he had received, and making proposals of an amnesty upon generous terms. 1690: The third expedition, meditated by Frontenac, was sent against Falmouth. The greater part of the Frenchmen were from Québec, under one M. de Portneuf; 55 men were mustered at Trois-Rivières, of whom 25 were Algonquins and Sokokis. To these were united an unknown number of Indians from the eastward, under Castine and Madockawando.

    5. [S669] The Northern Colonial Frontier, 1607-1763, Douglas Edward Leach, (Holt Reinhart & Winston, New York, 1966), 110-112.
      The Penacooks attacked Dover (on 28 June 1689) killing some two dozen people and taking 29 others captive (in retaliation for the 1688 attack by Sir Edmund Andros on Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin's Bagaduce River dwelling at Pentagouët).

    6. [S110] The Book of The Indians of North America, Samuel Gardner Drake, (Josiah Drake, Antiquarian Bookstore, Boston, 1833), Book III, Chapter VIII to Chapter IX, pp. 100-114.
      Également History of Penobscot County, Maine (multiple compilers), Williams, Chase & Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1882 (3 January), pp. 35, 38-40, 68-69, 72 & 496. Release of Thomas Cobbet in 1676 (captured at Richmond Island the previous autumn): At the end of nine weeks the Indians had a great powwow, and his master sent him to Mons. Castine for ammunition to kill moose and deer. He arrived at a most opportune hour, just before Mugg's departure to Teconnet, who readily called him by name. 'Ah,' said Mugg, 'I saw your father when I went to Boston, and I told him his son should return. He must be released according to treaty.' 'Yes,' replied Madockawando, 'but the captain must give me the fine coat he has in the vessel; for his father is a great preach-man, or chief speaker, among Englishmen.' This request was granted, and young Cobbet saw his demoniac master no more. 1692: The third Eastern expedition of Major Benjamin Church brought him into this sagamore's country. He landed a party on the Seven Hundred Acre Island, in Penobscot Bay, and was there informed by some Frenchmen, who were living with their families and Indian wives upon the island, that a great number of the savages were on a neighboring (probably Long) island, and that they hastened away in their canoes as soon as they saw the ships of Church. They could not be pursued past the peninsula without small boats, which Church had not in sufficient number; so he seized five Indians, with a lot of corn and beaver and moose-skins, and set sail for Pemaquid. Madockawando, with other chiefs, had become greatly exasperated by the outrages committed on these expeditions, and in August he visited Count Frontenac at Quebec, presented five English prisoners, for which he received a reward, and made an agreement that Frontenac should send two ships of-war and two hundred Canadians to Penobscot, while he joined them there with two to three hundred Indians. The united force would then devastate the coast below Penobscot, and destroy the new Fort William Henry at Pemaquid (plan compromised by John Nelson and abandoned). The next year, August 11, 1693, after a vigorous campaign by the English under Major (James) Converse, all the Eastern tribes came into the new garrison at Pemaquid by their representatives, and negotiated a treaty. Among the thirteen sagamores signing this convention appear the hieroglyphics of Madockawando and another chief of the Tarratines, called Abenquid. Also by Samuel G. Drake: Biography and History of the Indians of North America; from its first discovery, Benjamin B. Mussey & Co., Boston, Eleventh Edition, 1849 (originally published in 1841), pp. 303-306 (Teconnet was named after the waterfalls of the Kennebec where Wenobson was chief in 1693 when he signed the peace treaty).

    7. [S109] History of York Maine, Charles Edward Banks, (Peter E. Randall, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1990, originally printed in Boston, 1931), Volume 1, Chapters XXIV to XXVII & Appendix, p. 447.

    8. [S208] Journal of the Rev. John Pike. A memorandum of personal occurrences, Otis Grant Hammond, Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society, (Jacob B. Moore, Concord, New Hampshire, 1832), Volume III, pp. 44-46.
      25 January 1691 (old style Julian calendar that began its year on 25 March instead of 1 January): Monday, ten o'clock in the morning, the Indians fell upon York, killed about 48 persons, whereof the Rev. Mr. Dummer was one, and carried captive 73. 18 July 1694: The Indians fell suddenly and unexpectedly upon Oyster River about break of day, took three garrisons, (being deserted or not defended,) killed and carried away 94 persons, and burnt 13 houses. 27 July 1694: The enemy fell upon Groton about day break, killed 22 persons, and captivated 13. 19 November 1694: Bomazeen, with two other Indians, seized at Pemaquid. 16 February 1696: Sabbath day, Edgeremmet and Honquid (Abenquid), two Sagamores, with another Indian, slain upon a treaty at Pemaquid, and a fourth taken alive (Taxous, a.k.a. Moxus, managed to escape).

    9. [S101] The History of New Hampshire, edited by John Farmer, Jeremy Belknap, (S. C. Stevens and Ela & Wadleigh, Dover, N.H., 8 February 1831; George Wadleigh, 1862), 124-125, 138 & 140.

    10. [S228] John Nelson Merchant Adventurer, A Life Between Empires, Richard R. Johnson, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991), 55 & 73-74.

    11. [S606] Histoire du Canada, huitième édition, revue et augmentée par Hector Garneau, François-Xavier Garneau, (Éditions de l'Arbre, Montréal, 1944), Tome III, Livre 5, chap. 2, pp. 206 & 213-214.

    12. [S643] Dictionary of Canadian Biography (DCB/DBC), (University of Toronto Press & Les Presses de l'université Laval, 1966, 1969, 1974, 1979 & 1982), Volume II, pp. 5-6.

    13. [S170] Expédition des Abénaquis de Madokawando contre York, Maine, Mémoire de Champigny, 5 octobre 1692, (Fonds des Colonies, Correspondance générale; Canada), COL C11A 12/fol. 93-95v.

    14. [S92] Acadia at the end of the Seventeenth Century, John Clarence Webster, (The New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, N.B., 1934), 13-15, 33, 36-37, 53-66, 77, 147, 185, 193-194 & 198.
      (Letters, Journals and Memoirs of Joseph Robineau de Villebon, Commandant in Acadia, 1690-1700, and other contemporary documents). Sébastien de Villieu report, 26 July 1694 entry: About three o'clock, the remaining scouts having rejoined the party a league from some English houses, a consultation was held to determine the manner in which the attack should be made. It was decided to divide into two bands, and to attack on both sides of the river at daybreak. They separated at sunset to spread out during the night along the shore, which was well populated. Each band divided into several small parties which attacked at the same time (on the 27th), capturing two little forts without garrisons, in which the gentry of the district had sought refuge with a few of the settlers. One hundred and four persons were killed, and twenty seven prisoners taken in 60 houses, which were pillaged and burned. A large number of cattle were killed and then the Indians withdrew to the place where they had parted the evening before. The party set out rather late (on the 28th) and covered more than 15 leagues during the day. They arrived at the place where their canoes had been left (on the 29th), and in them the great majority embarked without provisions. 30 July 1694 entry: The Pentagoet Indians had not taken as many prisoners nor acquired as much booty as the Kennebecs, because none had been found to take at the point where their attack was made. At the request of the Sr. de Villieu and Taxous, their chief, fifty were detached to follow the latter who had been a trifle piqued because he had accomplished so little. They were joined by some of the bravest Kennebec warriors and, after dividing themselves into several parties of four or five, set out to crack a few heads in a surprise raid north of Boston (casser des têtes à la surprise). This cannot fail to have a good effect. Joseph Robineau de Villebon's comment: Taxous, from the time he had been at Nashwaak, had planned a second war-party to follow the first, in order to win the undivided devotion of the young men, and to avenge himself on the Kennebec Indians who had obtained all the prisoners and plunder, and who were unwilling, in spite of the appeal of the Sr. de Villieu, to give up any of their prisoners, which is unusual; for this is not a thing which is refused between chiefs.

    15. [S32] New England Captives Carried to Canada between 1677 and 1760 during the French and Indian Wars, Emma Lewis Coleman, (The Southworth Press, Portland, Maine, 1925), Volume 1, pp. 74, 221-251, 253, & 261-288.
      Friday, July 27, 1694 (Oyster River raid and attack on Groton of 6 August). Capture of Thomas Drew, his wife Tamsen, Mercy Adams, Mary Ann Davis and her sister Sarah (later redeemed). A friendly Indian called Hector or Hezekiah Miles, having been taken at Salmon Falls in 1691, was held as 'servant' at Naxouat above Norridgewock. After his release he testified in Boston against Bomazeen, and stated that the chiefs before leaving Norridgewock, 'Discoursed of falling on Oyster River and Groton;' but from the French 'Relation' it would seem that the decision was made later. In that account we read that two days after the Oyster River massacre the war-party with some of the captives arrived at the place where they had left their canoes (at Penacook as per the 11 June 1695 deposition of Ann Jenkins), in which most of them embarked.

    16. [S659] History of the town of Durham, New Hampshire (Oyster River Plantation) with genealogical notes, Everett S. Stackpole, Col. Lucien Thompson and Winthrop Smith Meserve, (Published by the vote of the town, Durham, New Hampshire, 1913), Volume 1, pp. 69-70 & 89-103.
      Oyster River raid (17 July 1694, o.s.). William Redford's letter (Dept. Secy.) to Sir William Phips dated 21 July 1694: 'Douic who signed the Peace was there, a woman who was Douics servant made her escape, by reason of his being drunk.' (pp. 101-102).

    17. [S759] Landmarks in Ancient Dover, New Hampshire, Complete Edition, Mary P. Thompson, (Durham, N. H., 26 May 1892, printed by the Republican Press Association, Concord, N. H.), 56, 173-187 & 236.
      Oyster River Garrisons (17 July 1694, o.s.).

    18. [S171] Relation de la campagne du capitaine de Villieu contre Oyster River, NH, Sébastien de Villieu, 26 août 1694, (Fonds des Colonies, Correspondance générale; Canada), COL C11A 13/fol. 153-156.
      Également Preserved in The Public Record Office, Edited by the Hon. J. W. Fortescue, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West Indies, 1693-1696, Mackie and Co. Ld., H.M.S.O., London, 1903, Volume 14, pp. 348-349. Lieut.-Col. Thomas Packer reported from Portsmouth on 18 July 1694 (o.s.): 'News is just come of the destruction of Oyster River by the Indians. Some have escaped; all our frontiers are beset.' New Hampshire Lieutenant-Governor John Usher advised Governor Sir William Phips (18 July 1694): 'The whole province is in arms, and we fear several out towns are beset. Two men have escaped wounded, but I judge that the whole of Oyster River has been cut off. I doubt not of your ready assistance.' William Redford followed-up with: 'We have heard that the Indians are very numerous, at least 300, spread six or seven miles, and engaged all at once. Not above twenty houses in Oyster River are left standing, and without help from you it must be deserted, which will give the enemy an inlet into the whole country.' A somber Usher concluded on the 21st: 'This is the third express for help. If the country is lost for want of it, it will be resented at home. God knows what that night may bring forth. 300 Indians are here, 600 more are expected. I judge that in little time all the out-towns will be laid waste, and only Great Island preserved.' Cotton Mather in his Magnalia Christi Americana refers to the attack on Groton: 'On (Friday) July 27, (1694) about break of day, Groton felt some surprising blows from Indian hatchets. They began their attacks at the house of one Lieutenant (William) Lakin in the outskirts of the town, but met with a repulse there and lost one of their crew. Nevertheless, in other parts of the plantation, (where the good people had become so tired out as to lay down their military watch) there were more than a dozen carried away. Mr. Gershom Hobart, the minister of the place, with part of his family, was remarkably preserved from falling into their hands, when they made themselves the masters of his house, though they took two of his children, whereof the one was killed, and the other some time after happily rescued out of his captivity.' (History of the Town of Groton, Caleb Butler, Press of T. R. Marvin, No. 24 Congress Street, Boston, 1848, p. 93).

    19. [S766] History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Samuel Adams Drake, (Estes and Lauriat, Publishers, 301 Washington Street, Boston, 1880), Volume 1, pp. 457-458.
      Groton: 'The French report, sent October 26 (1694), by M. Champigny to the Minister, Pontchartrain, now in the archives of the marine and colonies at Paris, mentions this assault (on Groton) as follows: 'These Indians did not stop there (Oyster River); four parties of them have since been detached, who have been within half a day's journey of Boston [i.e. at Groton], where they have killed or captured more than sixty persons, ravaged and pillaged everything they found, which has thrown all people into such consternation that they are leaving the open country to seek refuge in the towns.' Another account says: 'At the solicitation of Villieu and Taxous, their chief, some fifty of them detached themselves to follow this last person, who was piqued at the little that had been done. They were joined by some of the bravest warriors of the Kennebec, to go on a war-party above Boston to break heads by surprise (casser des têtes à la surprise), after dividing themselves into several squads of four or five each, which cannot fail of producing a good effect.' According to Charlevoix, 'The English made a better defence than they did at Pescadué [Piscataqua]. Taxous had two of his nephews killed by his side, and himself received more than a dozen musket-balls in his clothes.' The loss of life from this attack was considerably greater than when the town was destroyed and deserted in the year 1676. There were twenty-two persons killed and thirteen captured. The settlement was now more scattered than it was then, and its defence more difficult. For this reason more persons were killed and taken prisoners than when the place was assaulted eighteen years previously. It is said that the scalps of the unfortunate victims were given to Count de Frontenac, governor of Canada.

    20. [S527] The Border wars of New England, commonly called King William's and Queen Anne's wars, Samuel Adams Drake, (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1910), 76-81 & 94-103.
      Oyster River raid. The crafty Moxus now made a large détour, crossed the Merrimac unperceived, and after making such a march as only savages out on the war path are capable of, on the 27th of July (1694, o.s.), at daybreak, made a determined assault upon Groton, Mass., some thirty-two miles from Boston. Twenty-two persons were killed and thirteen carried off into captivity.

    21. [S249] The Gazetteer of the State of New Hampshire, Eliphalet Merrill and Phinehas Merrill, Esq., (C. Norris & Co., Exeter, NH, 1817), Part Two: Durham, pp. 121-126.

    22. [S563] Nova Scotia's Massachusetts, 1630 to 1784, George A. Rawlwyk, (McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal and London, 1973), 78-79.

    23. [S34] Collection de Manuscrits (lettres, mémoires et documents historiques) relatifs à la Nouvelle-France, Jean Blanchet, (Édités sous les hospices de la Législature de Québec, Imprimerie A. Côté et Cie., Québec, 1884), Volume II, pp. 249-250.
      Rapport de Champigny, Québec, 25 octobre 1696: Edzérimet (Edgeremet), fameux chef, est tué avec son fils (16 février 1696) à Pemkuit (Pemaquid). Taxous (chef considérable des Abénaquis) fut saisy par trois soldats, et quelque autres de mesme, dont l'un fur amené vif dans le fort; deux autres se délivèrent à coups de couteaux de trois ennemys qui les avoient chacun saisy, et il en cousta le vye à quatre Anglois. Un de nos Sauvages la perdit par les coups qui luy furent tirez du fort, et l'autre sauva Taxous, ayant encore tué de son couteau deux ennemys.

    24. [S99] History of New Hampshire, Everett S. Stackpole, (The American Historical Society, New York, 1926), 183.
      Also: State of Vermont's response to petition for Federal acknowledgment of the St. Francis/Sokoki Band of the Abenaki Nation of Vermont, William H. Sorrell, Attorney General, Eve Jacobs-Carnahan, Special Assistant Attorney General, December 2002, Second Printing, January 2003, pp. 1-27 & 64-67 (historical background including nineteenth and twentieth century claims).

    25. [S105] The French Baron of Pentagouet; Baron St. Castin and the Struggle for Empire in Early New England, Aline S. Taylor, (Picton Press, Rockport, ME, February 1998).

    26. [S564] Saint-Castin, Baron français, chef amérindien, Marjolaine Saint-Pierre, (Les éditions du Septentrion, Sillery, Québec, juin 1999).